God's Attributes Through the Book and Life of Jonah

by Unknown Author


1.) of the sea and land (1:19).
2.) of the great fish (1:17) "He prepared a great fish."
3.) of the billows and waves (2:3) "Thy billows and thy waves."
4.) of Jonah's shelter (4:16) "The Lord God prepared a gourd."
5.) of the worm that destroyed the gourd (4:7).
6.) of the wind (4:8) "God prepared a vehement east wind."

Omniscient-God knew:

1.) of the wickedness of Nineveh (1:2).
2.) where Jonah was running to (1:30).
3.) the fears of the fishermen and their superstitions (1:4-7, 10-16).
4.) how to get Jonah's attention (2:1-10).
5.) the heart of the king of Nineveh to be sincere (3:10).
6.) Jonah's anger and pride (4:1, 4, 9).

Omnipotent-God was:

1.) Master of the sea (1:4, 15).
2.) able to sustain life in the belly of the fish (1:17).
3.) Master of living creatures (1:17; 2:10; 4:7).
4.) able to destroy Nineveh at will (3:4). (Later it was destroyed, according to Zephaniah 2:13-15.)
5.) Master over life and death (4:3).
6.) Master of the plants (4:6).

Omnipresent-God was:

1.) present in the city of Nineveh (1:2).
2.) present in the ship (1:4, 15).
3.) Jonah tried to flee from the presence of the Lord but failed (1:3, 10).
4.) present with Jonah in the belly of the fish (2:4, 5).
5.) present with Jonah in his anger (4:1-11).


To be Master and Creator of all things mentioned He would have had to have been there from the very beginning. He must be eternal to be omniscient.


1.) Jonah knew there would be consequences in disobeying God (1:9, 10).
2.) God was true to His word about destroying an evil Nineveh (Zeph. 2:13-15).


1.) heard the cry against Nineveh (1:2).
2.) judged and pronounced judgment on Nineveh (1:2; 3:4).
3.) judged against Jonah's disobedience (1:4-2:10).
4.) judged Jonah's anger and pride (4:6-11).


1.) saved the sailors (1:15).
2.) turned away Nineveh's punishment (3:10).
3.) did not forsake Jonah in his anger (4:1-11).
4.) taught Jonah a lesson (4:10, 11).

Love, Grace and Mercy:

1.) "I cried by reason of my affliction unto the Lord, and He heard me" (2:2) (love).
2.) "Yet hast thou brought up my life from corruption" (2:6) (grace and mercy).
3.) "Salvation is of the Lord" (2:9) (love, grace and mercy).
4.) God repented of the evil of which He said He would do" (3:10) (mercy).
5.) "I knew that thou art a gracious God and merciful" (4:2) (mercy).
6.) "...And should not I spare Nineveh...?" (4:11) (mercy).


1.) His truth never changed; wicked cities would be destroyed. Cities that come in repentance He will spare. (3:10; Zeph. 2:13-15).
2.) Jonah's disobedience did not change God's message to Nineveh (3:1).


1.) "They feared the Lord" pronounces Kingship (1:9, 16).
2.) The sailors prayed unto their gods but recognized Jonah's God as the one true great God (1:5, 6, 14, 16).
3.) Jonah cried "O Lord my God" proclaiming him Lord of Lords.
4.) The king of Nineveh recognized Jonah's God as being the supreme Monarch (3:5, 6).

Jesus Christ's Burial and Resurrection foreshadowed Through Jonah

"Now the Lord had prepared a great fish to swallow up Jonah. And Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights" (1:17).

Compare: Matthew 12:40, "For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly: so shall the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth" (see also Luke 24:6-8).

Salvation As Seen in the Book and Life of Jonah


Confession: "They that observe lying vanities forsake their own mercy" (2:8).
Forsaking Sin: "But I will sacrifice unto thee with the voice of thanksgiving; I will pay that that I vowed" (2:9).
Turning unto God: "Salvation is of the Lord..." (2:9b).
Result: Jonah got a second chance (2:10-3:3).

Confession: "So the people of Nineveh believed God, and proclaimed..." (3:5a).
Forsaking Sin: "Let them turn every one from his evil way, and from the violence that is in their hands" (3:8b).
Turning Unto God: "who can tell if God will turn and repent...?" (3:9).
Result: "And God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way; and God repented of the evil, that he had said that he would do unto them; and He did it not" (3:10).


1.) Jonah's proclamation (1:9): "I am an Hebrew; and I fear the Lord, the God of heaven, which hath made the sea and the dry land...."
2.) The sailors' belief (1:16): "Then the men feared the Lord exceedingly, and offered a sacrifice unto the Lord, and made vows."
3.) Jonah's faith that God would hear his prayer (2:2-9).
4.) Jonah's belief in God's word (3:30): "So Jonah arose, and went unto Nineveh, according to the word of the Lord."
5.) Nineveh's faith (3:5): "So the people of Nineveh believed God."
6.) The king of Nineveh believed (3:6-9).

Justification: (a change in a man's relation or standing before God)

1.) Jonah's position changed after his repentance (2:1-10).
2.) Nineveh's position changed after national repentance (3:5-10).


Sincerity: Jonah cried; (2:2) - Nineveh's actions followed words (3:5-8).
Simplicity: Jonah kept to the point of acknowledging God and repenting.
Earnestness: both Jonah and Nineveh showed it through their actions.
Persistence: both continued praying until they saw God move.
Faith: both believed that their situations could be changed by prayer.
Unison with others: a whole nation prayed in agreement.
Definiteness: both had a definite, single-minded goal and request.
Effort: Nineveh's all-out effort toward repentance.
Fasting: Nineveh fasted as a nation.